Viral hepatitis among key populations

Export Indicator

Prevalence of hepatitis and HIV coinfection among key populations
What it measures

Comorbidity with HIV and potential need for appropriate treatment


Appreciation of hepatitis and HIV coinfection has improved recently. Many people living with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy are dying from liver disease resulting from untreated viral hepatitis. HIV treatment regimens can be adjusted to treat chronic hepatitis B infection as well. New, highly effective hepatitis C treatment is available and has a high rate of virus clearance regardless of hepatitis C virus subtype. Measuring the hepatitis burden among key populations living with HIV can help national planners determine the resources needed to address the syndemic.


Number of people in a key population who test positive for antibody to hepatitis C virus


Number of people in a key population who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen


Number of people in a key population who also test positive for HIV together with one of the above


Number of respondents tested for both HIV and one or both of hepatitis B and C



Method of measurement

Behavioural surveillance or other special surveys.

Measurement frequency

Every two years

  • Age (<25 and 25+ years).
  • Gender (male, female and transgender).
  • Key population.
Additional information requested

If the testing algorithm is available for hepatitis C screening, please include this information, especially if complementary or PCR testing is conducted.

Strengths and weaknesses

Probability-based estimates of coinfection with HIV and hepatitis C virus or HIV and hepatitis B virus among key populations are generally unavailable, although several biobehavioural surveys have conducted hepatitis antibody testing. Improving knowledge about coinfection will help to improve treatment programmes and help to maximize the survival of the affected populations. The numbers of people coinfected are likely to be small, with the possible exception of people who inject drugs, so the confidence intervals will be large.

Further information

Global HIV Strategic Information Working Group. 2017. Biobehavioural survey guidelines for populations at risk for HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017 (

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, International Network of People Who Use Drugs, UNAIDS, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Population Fund, World Health Organization et al. Implementing comprehensive HIV and HCV programmes with people who inject drugs: practical guidance for collaborative interventions. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; 2017 (