Mother-to-child transmission of HIV
When compared with earlier values, this indicator shows the impact of providing women with antiretroviral medicines to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
Estimated number of children newly infected with HIV from mother-to-child transmission among children born in the previous 12 months to women living with HIV
Estimated number of births to women living with HIV who delivered in the previous 12 months
Ideally, this indicator would be measured through programmes identifying HIV infection in young children. However, these programmes often are not able to identify infections among children of women who seroconvert while they are breastfeeding or those who were not identified as living with HIV during antenatal care. Modelled estimates are used for global reporting in settings where final outcomes at the population level are not available.
- The distribution of pregnant women living with HIV receiving different antiretroviral regimens before and during delivery (peripartum) by the CD4 category of the mother.
- The distribution of women and children receiving antiretroviral medicines after delivery (postpartum) by the CD4 category of the mother.
- The percentage of infants who are not breastfeeding in programmes for preventing mother-to-child transmission by the age of the child.
- Probabilities of mother-to-child transmission of HIV based on various categories of antiretroviral medicine regimen and infant feeding practices.
- The estimated number of women living with HIV delivering.
The summary display for preventing mother-to-child transmission in Spectrum reports the estimated national population-level transmission rate. This variable can also be calculated in Spectrum by dividing the number of children 0–14 years old newly infected with HIV by the number of women who need services for preventing mother-to-child transmission.
This indicator is different from the United States Government MER indicator on PMTCT Final Outcome (PMTCT_FO), as the MER indicator is a cohort measure that does not capture child infections among women who seroconvert during breastfeeding or those who did not participate in (or who dropped out of) the PMTCT programme.
- Following up mother–child pairs is difficult, especially at the national level, because of the lag in reporting and the multiple health facility sites that mother–child pairs can visit for the wide range of services for preventing mother-to-child transmission and child care interventions delivered over a time span.
- Children (especially those living with HIV) may die before they are tested to determine whether transmission has occurred.
- A directly measured indicator will not capture women and their children who do not attend programmes, possibly because of high levels of stigma.
- Most directly measured values will not include women who seroconvert while breastfeeding.
WHO publications on HIV monitoring and evaluation (http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/me/en/index.html).