Condom use among gay and other men who have sex with men
Progress in preventing exposure to HIV among men who have unprotected anal sex with a male partner
Condoms can substantially reduce the risk of sexually transmitting HIV. Consistently and correctly using condoms is therefore important for men who have sex with men because of the high risk of HIV transmission during unprotected anal sex. In addition, men who have anal sex with other men may also have female partners, who could become infected as well. Condom use with the most recent male partner is considered a reliable indicator of longer-term behaviour.
Note: countries with generalized epidemics may also have a concentrated subepidemic among gay men and other men who have sex with men. If so, calculating and reporting on this indicator for this population would be valuable.
Number of men who have sex with men who reported using a condom the last time they had anal sex
Number of men who have sex with men who reported having had anal sex with a male partner in the past six months
Behavioural surveillance or other special surveys
In a behavioural survey of a sample of gay men and other men who have sex with men, respondents are asked about sexual partnerships in the past six months, about anal sex within these partnerships and about condom use when they last had anal sex. Condom use applies whether the respondent is the receptive and insertive partner.
Whenever possible, data for gay men and other men who have sex with men should be collected with civil society organizations that have worked closely with this population in the field.
Access to gay men and other men who have sex with men and the data collected from them must remain confidential and secure.
Every two years
- Age (<25 and 25+ years).
- Cities and other administrative areas of epidemiologic importance.
If there are subnational data available, please provide the disaggregation by administrative area, city, or site in the space provided. Submit the digital version of any available survey reports using the upload tool.
For gay men and other men who have sex with men, condom use at last anal sex with any partner indicates well the overall levels and trends in protected and unprotected sex in this population. This indicator does not give any idea of risk behaviour in sex with women among men who have sex with both women and men. In countries in which men in the subpopulation surveyed are likely to have partners of both sexes, condom use with female as well as male partners should be investigated. In these cases, data on condom use should always be presented separately for the female and male partners.
This indicator asks about sex between men in the past six months. If data are available for a different time period, such as the past three or 12 months, please include this information in the metadata in the comments section of the reporting tool.
The data obtained may not be based on a representative national sample of the men who have sex with men being surveyed. If there are concerns that the data are not based on a representative sample, the interpretation of the survey data should reflect these concerns. Where different sources of data exist, the best available estimate should be used. The report submitted with this indicator should include information on the sample size, the quality and reliability of the data and any related issues.
To maximize the utility of these data, it is recommended that the same sample used for calculating this indicator be used for calculating the other indicators related to these populations.
United Nations Population Fund, Global Forum on MSM & HIV, United Nations Development Programme, World Health Organization, United States Agency for International Development, World Bank. Implementing comprehensive HIV and STI programmes with men who have sex with men: practical guidance for collaborative interventions. New York (NY): United Nations Population Fund; 2015 (https://mpactglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/MSMIT-for-Web.pdf).
Consolidated HIV strategic information guidelines: Driving impact through programme monitoring and management. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2020 (https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1274308/retrieve).
Global HIV Strategic Information Working Group. Biobehavioral survey guidelines for populations at risk for HIV. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017 (https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/258924/9789241513012-eng.pdf).