Avoidance of health care among key populations because of stigma and discrimination (A–D)
What it measures
Progress towards reducing discriminatory attitudes and support for discriminatory policies in health-care settings.
Discrimination is a human rights violation and is prohibited by international human rights law and most national constitutions. In the context of HIV, discrimination refers to unfair or unjust treatment of an individual (either through actions or by failure to act) based on his or her real or perceived HIV status. Discrimination exacerbates risks and deprives people of their rights and entitlements, thus fuelling the HIV epidemic. HIV-related stigma refers to negative beliefs, feelings and attitudes towards people living with HIV, groups associated with people living with HIV (e.g., the families of people living with HIV) and other key populations at higher risk of HIV infection, such as people who inject drugs, sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgender people.
- Avoidance of health-care services in general among all respondents.
- Avoidance of HIV testing among all respondents who report not having had an HIV test in the past 12 months.
- Avoidance of HIV-specific health -care among respondents who have indicated they are living with HIV and have not received or have stopped receiving HIV care.
- Avoidance of HIV treatment among respondents who have indicated they are living with HIV and have never taken or have stopped taking HIV treatment.
Number of respondents
Behavioural surveillance or other special surveys
Every 2–3 years
- A–D: age Age (<25 and 25+ years).
- A and C: gender Gender (female, male and transgender).
- A–D: Cities.
Please provide the questions included in the survey instruments.
As a measure of stigma and discrimination, this indicator focuses on the outcomes of such behaviour. If perceived or experienced stigma and discrimination is sufficiently severe enough to dissuade people from seeking necessary health services, not only can it readily be identified as a problem, but it also affects critical service uptake. Some respondents, however, may experience and perceive important stigmatizing and discriminatory behaviour in their communities but, because of their own resilience or discrete or specialized services, may still seek out services. The indicator is not going to measure achieving zero discrimination but can inform on whether discrimination is reducing service uptake.