Annual number of males voluntarily circumcised
Progress in scaling up male circumcision services
Compelling evidence indicates that male circumcision reduces the risk of men heterosexually acquiring HIV infection by about 60%. Three randomized controlled trials have shown that male circumcision provided by well-trained health professionals in properly equipped settings is safe and can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV. WHO/UNAIDS recommendations emphasize that male circumcision should be considered an efficacious intervention for HIV prevention in countries and regions with heterosexual epidemics, high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision prevalence.
Number of males circumcised during the past 12 months according to national standards
Health facility recording and reporting forms, programme data, health information system
Age (<1, 1–9, 10–14, 15–19, 20–24, 25–49 and 50+ years)
Cities and other administrative areas of importance
The total number of men and boys circumcised indicates either change in the supply of services or change in demand. Comparing the results against previous values shows where male circumcision services have been newly instituted or where male circumcision volume has changed.
- HIV positive by test(s) on site, HIV negative by test(s) on site, HIV indeterminate result by test(s) on site or unknown or refused HIV test;
- type and location of health facility; and
- cadre of the provider.
Disaggregating the number of male circumcisions by HIV status and age will enable the impact of male circumcision programmes on HIV incidence using models to be determined. If a country has given priority to specific age groups, this disaggregation will help to determine whether age-specific communication strategies are creating demand. If the data are available by the type and location of health-care facility where the circumcision was performed, resource allocation needs can be assessed. Disaggregating these data by the cadre of health-care provider will determine whether taskshifting efforts are succeeding and determine resource allocation.
Some programmes will work closely with voluntary HIV testing services to provide HIV testing. A man desiring circumcision may have been recently tested, and an on-site HIV test may be unnecessary. In these cases, the facility may request a written verified result to verify HIV status. There is no specific length of time before male circumcision that the test should have been done, but within three months is suggested. The purpose of testing is not to identify every man who might be HIV positive but to provide HIV testing to men seeking health-care and to identify men living with HIV who, if they choose to be circumcised, are likely to be at higher risk of surgical complications (men with chronically infections and with low CD4 counts).
A guide to indicators for male circumcision programmes in the formal health care system. Geneva: World Health Organization and UNAIDS; 2009 (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598262_eng.pdf).
DfC.1 VMMC scale-up, 2020, WHO Consolidated HIV strategic information guidelines: driving impact through programme monitoring and management (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/consolidated-hiv-strategic-information-guidelines).
VMMC_CIRC, PEPFAR, MER 2.0 (Version 2.4), September 2019, Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/PEPFAR-MER-Indicator-Reference-Guide-Version-2.4-FY20.pdf).